1. Optics, Refraction and Visual Physiology
Candidates should be familiar with the basic principles of physical and geometrical optics and the operation of standard optical instruments. They should understand the essentials of visual physiology including visual acuity, light and dark adaptation, accommodation, and colour vision. They should know the various forms of ametropia, principles and techniques of refraction, principles of lens design, and methods of correction of ametropia including spectacles, contact lenses, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery. Candidates should be familiar with the methods for prescribing protective lenses, absorptive lenses, and aids for low vision.
2. Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Candidates should be familiar with diseases affecting the eyes of infants and children and with associated systemic abnormalities. They should understand the anatomy, physiology and pathology of visual development and of the neuro-muscular mechanisms serving ocular motility and binocular vision. Candidates should be familiar with the methods of examination for the detection and assessment of sensory and ocular motor disorders. They should also know the clinical features, differential diagnosis, natural course and management of the various types of comitant and incomitant deviations. They should be familiar with the principles and the complications of surgery upon the extraocular muscles.
3. Neuro-Ophthalmology and Orbital Disease
Candidates should know the anatomy of the orbit and the neuro-anatomy of the afferent and efferent visual systems. They should understand the principles of examination and investigation, including visual field testing, visual evoked responses, ultrasonography, conventional radiograms, CT, and MRI scanning. Candidates should be familiar with the clinical features, pathology, differential diagnosis and management of disorders of the orbit, visual pathways, oculomotor system and pupillomotor pathways, including the indications for, principles and complications of orbital surgery.
4. External Disease and Ocular Adnexa
Candidates should know the anatomy, embryology and physiology of the structures comprising the eyelids, lachrymal system, conjunctiva, cornea, and anterior sclera. They should demonstrate knowledge of relevant pathological processes, differential diagnosis and medical therapy as well as indications for, principles and complications of surgical procedures used in treatment of abnormalities and diseases affecting these tissues.
5. Anterior Segment of the Eye
Candidates are expected to know the anatomy, embryology, physiology and pathology of abnormalities and diseases of the anterior chamber angle, iris, ciliary body and lens. They will be expected to discuss conditions affecting these structures and those to be considered in their differential diagnosis. They should also be able to describe and provide indications for relevant medical and surgical therapy.
6. Posterior Segment of the Eye
Candidates should be familiar with the anatomy, embryology, physiology and pathology of abnormalities and diseases of the vitreous, retina, choroid, and posterior sclera. They will be expected to discuss conditions affecting these structures and those to be considered in their differential diagnosis. They should be able to describe and provide indications for medical and surgical therapy directed toward alleviating these conditions.
Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
Intraocular inflammation, uveitis, vitreoretinal diseases
Ophthalmic pathology and oncology
Optics and refraction
Eyelids, Lacrimal system, orbit
External Disease, Cornea, Cataract, Refractive surgery
Disclaimer: This list is recommended as a useful guide to candidates. It is not comprehensive. EBO does not accept appeals based on exam questions differing from the information detailed in this list.
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